пятница, 23 апреля 2010 г.

День рождение Вильяма Шекспира

William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. The parish register of Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, shows that he was baptized there on April 26, 1564; his birthday is traditionally celebrated on April 23. His father, John Shakespeare, was a burgess of the borough, who in 1565 was chosen an alderman and in 1568 bailiff (the position corresponding to mayor, before the grant of a further charter to Stratford in 1664). He was engaged in various kinds of trade and appears to have suffered some fluctuations in prosperity. His wife, Mary Arden, of Wilmcote, Warwickshire, came from an ancient family and was the heiress to some land. William, according to the church register, was the third of eight children in the Shakespeare household—three of whom died in childhood. Stratford enjoyed a grammar school of good quality, and the education there was free, the schoolmaster's salary being paid by the borough. No lists of the pupils who were at the school in the 16th century have survived, but it would be absurd to suppose the bailiff of the town did not send his son there. The boy's education would consist mostly of Latin studies--learning to read, write, and speak the language fairly well and studying some of the classical historians, moralists, and poets. Shakespeare did not go on to the university. Instead, at the age of 18, on November 28, 1582 he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, (baptized on May 26, 1583) and twins Hamnet and Judith (baptized on February 2, 1585). Hamnet died in childhood at the age of 11, on August 11, 1596. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613. William Shakespeare wrote his will in 1611, bequeathing his properties to his daughter Susanna (married in 1607 to Dr. John Hall). To his surviving daughter Judith, he left some money, and to his wife Anne left "my second best bed." William Shakespeare died on his birthday, April 23, 1616. This is probably more of a romantic myth than reality, but Shakespeare was interred at Holy Trinity in Stratford on April 25. His wife Anne died in 1623, seven years after Shakespeare. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the nineteenth century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry". In the twentieth century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.
collaboration - сотрудничество, совместная работа
parish – церковный приход
burgess – житель города имеющего самоуправление
borough – небольшой город, имеющий самоуправление
alderman – член городского управления
bailiff – судебный
mayor - мэр
grant
charter - дарственная грамота
bequeathing – завещать, предать по наследству
inter – хоронить, предать земле
acclaim - провозглашать
worship – почитать, поклоняться
reverence – почтение, благоговение
scholarship – ученость, эрудиция
Listen and watch such a wonderful sonnet!
SONNET 18
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou growest:
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this and this gives life to thee.


SONNET 17
Who will believe my verse in time to come,
If it were fill'd with your most high deserts?
Though yet, heaven knows, it is but as a tomb
Which hides your life and shows not half your parts.
If I could write the beauty of your eyes
And in fresh numbers number all your graces,
The age to come would say 'This poet lies:
Such heavenly touches ne'er touch'd earthly faces.'
So should my papers yellow'd with their age
Be scorn'd like old men of less truth than tongue,
And your true rights be term'd a poet's rage
And stretched metre of an antique song:
But were some child of yours alive that time,
You should live twice; in it and in my rhyme.
A lot of information about the poet here: http://www.shakespeare-online.com/

2 комментария:

  1. Анонимный17 мая 2010 г., 19:45

    I agree with you, William Shakespeare was a very famous poet. And there is a very interesting and wonderfull video.

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  2. Анонимный20 мая 2010 г., 4:03

    Ooo...William Shakespeare was a great person in the world.In my opinion, his poems are so beautiful and satisfying.For instanse:Romeo and Juliet have a good respect and amazing character and plot.It is my favoroite drama.HE wrote a lot of stories about love.It is one more reason why William liked me.To my mind,He had a lot of experiense and skills to become great author.
    Ruzhova Veronika

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